Clearly these individuals had negative thoughts about their verbal ability that affected their performance.
Those studies suggested that one group's stereotype of another group would become more or less positive depending on whether their intergroup relationship had improved or degraded.
They are a form of categorization that helps to simplify and systematize information. Under what conditions do stereotypes guide social judgments and behavior? Yet, since negative stereotypes can undermine optimal performance, it is particularly important to consider the social context that moderates age-related differences in cognitive functioning and others' perception of the elderly.
In another experiment, Bargh, Chen, and Burrows also found that because the stereotype about blacks includes the notion of aggression, subliminal exposure to black faces increased the likelihood that randomly selected white college students reacted with more aggression and hostility than participants who subconsciously viewed a white face.
Two measures have captured the bulk of recent research attention.
This means that at least some stereotypes are inaccurate. Research is also needed to identify the conditions under which positive or negative stereotypes affect decisions made about older people in everyday life—such as whether an older person should continue to drive or requires assisted living or in communications between older people and health care providers.