The serfs had recently been emancipated, the industry and economy was just starting to develop and opposition to the Tsar was building up. The workers and the army were unhappy with their working conditions; they wanted minimum wage and more rights.
The social democrats — who were further divided into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, wanted to completely change society and remove the Tsar. As well as being a response to Bloody Sunday, the revolution was a result of pent up dissatisfaction with the autocracy in Russia and with the vast social inequality The first inthe second in March then in November As a result Orwell 's tone throughout the novel is concerned.
Key examples of these were groups such as the Kadets, the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks.
It is also important to see small differences which gave the two events such contrasting outcomes and determined the survival and the fall of the Tsar There are many different reasons why the Tsar survived and there are also many different reasons his position was put under threat in the first place.
Russia was still behind Europe in terms of the political regime, the social conditions and the economy.