The internet as mass medium
In general, CMC, with its lack of visual and other nonverbal cues, is said to be extremely low in social presence in comparison to face-to-face communication Walther, a.
Mass media pdf
This kind of transfer of research patterns from one communication technology to another is not unusual. This was the first time when a form of media was "broadcast" to a wider audience. Rafaeli summarizes the importance of this paradigm for electronic communication by noting uses-and-gratifications' comprehensive nature in a media environment where computers have not only home and business applications, but also work and play functions. To what extent is that really the case? From Rafaeli's perspective, the most useful basis of inquiry for interactivity would be one grounded in responsiveness. Also of relevance is what causes the perception of motion: a psychological effect identified as beta movement. And why do they remain lurkers and not also become information providers? In creating new configurations of sources, messages, and receivers, new communication technologies force researchers to examine their old definitions. At present there is no way to know when the Mikes on the Internet are even real, let alone credible Ogan,
Ohio: Thomson South-Western. Finnegan Jr.
Types of mass media
Information has become readily available through websites, and easily accessible through search engines. Reach: A medium is said to have a good reach or coverage if it has the ability to expose a large number of people to a given mass media message within a given period. Rafaeli regards the move away from effects research to a uses-and-gratifications approach as essential to the study of electronic bulletin boards one aspect of the Internet medium. Nevertheless, not even radio, TV and much less newspapers and magazines can hope to achieve simultaneity of reception especially with our contemporary multi-channel phenomenon. Podcast Main article: Podcast A podcast is a series of digital-media files which are distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and computers. Viewing the Internet as Mass Medium Producers and audiences on the Internet can be grouped generally into four categories: a one-to-one asynchronous communication, such as E-mail; b many-to-many asynchronous communication, such as Usenet, electronic bulletin boards, and Listservers that require the receiver to sign up for a service or log on to a program to access messages around a particular topic or topics; c synchronous communication that can be one-to-one, one-to-few, or one-to-many and can be organized around a topic, the construction of an object, or role playing, such as MUDs Multi-User Dungeons and their various transformations as MOOs, MUCKs and MUSHs , Internet Relay Chat and chat rooms on commercial services; and d asynchronous communication generally characterized by the receiver's need to seek out the site in order to access information, which may involve many-to-one, one-to-one, or one-to-many source-receiver relationships e. Critical mass This conceptual framework has been adopted from economists, physicists, and sociologists by organizational communication and diffusion of innovation scholars to better understand the size of the audience needed for a new technology to be considered successful and the nature of collective action as applied to electronic media use Markus, ; Oliver et al. Who are they and how big is this group? Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers. Audio recording and reproduction Sound recording and reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation or amplification of sound , often as music. If no one contributes, the data base cannot exist. Some newspapers seem to be creating home pages to mark their place in cyberspace until their managers determine how to make them commercially viable.
However, inthe Master Settlement Agreement between the US and the tobacco industries prohibited the billboard advertising of cigarettes. The Internet allows for instantaneous exchange of information to and from any part of the globe.
The audience members on their part may also not know the sender of such online messages or information.
But when enhanced on the Internet, the online version has no boundaries. Such regulation includes determination of the width of the bands, range, licensing, types of receivers and transmitters used, and acceptable content.
Social presence and media richness theory These approaches have been applied to CMC use by organizational communication researchers to account for interpersonal effects. As technology changes and media converge, those research categories must become flexible.
Both Walther b and Rafaeli concur in this conclusion. This power can be used for good, for example encouraging children to play sport. The messages themselves can be traditional journalistic news stories created by a reporter and editor, stories created over a long period of time by many people, or simply conversations, such as in an Internet Relay Chat group.
Examples include: Corporations use marketing public relations to convey information about the products they manufacture or services they provide to potential customers to support their direct sales efforts.
Similarly, the term mass media, with its roots in ideas of mass society, has always been difficult to define. The tradition of mass communication research has accepted newspapers, radio, and television as its objects of study for social, political, and economic reasons. As Wartella and Reeves note, researchers responded to the public controversy over the adoption of a new media technology in American life. Dominick, J. Valente notes that the critical mass is achieved when about 10 to 20 percent of the population has adopted the innovation. Constraints on Internet Research Mass communications researchers have overlooked the potential of the Internet for several reasons. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists. Through its electronic mail often referred to as email for short, instant messaging or chat facilities, the Internet makes it possible for people to communicate with others both at the interpersonal and mass levels of communication. A "video game" or "videogame" has evolved into a catchall phrase that encompasses the aforementioned along with any game made for any other device, including, but not limited to, advanced calculators , mobile phones , PDAs , etc. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style.
based on 71 review