The result was a war in which soldiers near the front were seldom safe from artillery bombardment. World War One: Military Revolutions and the Onset of a New Era World War I was the beginning of the idea of industrial war, involving the productive power of entire nations, and despite massive casualties and cost, neither alliance could achieve decisive operational or strategic victory.
Submarines proved an effective sea weapon, though eventually vulnerable ships were escorted by warships, and the effectiveness of submarines declined. He was headed back home. The parade that honored the Harlem Hellfighters in February ran for seven miles, with Johnson leading the procession in an open-topped cab.
As well as those who served in the army as doctors and nurses, volunteers with medical backgrounds worked in makeshift hospitals set up to support the large number of injuries and infectious diseases that plagued Europe during the war.
The British naval blockade of Germany, which was made possible by developments in naval technology, brought a total war to civilians.
They also developed air-cooled machine guns for airplanes and improved those used on the ground, making them lighter and easier to move. The nicknames came fast.
They were both relatively deadly. Tanks were also uncomfortable due to engine fumes as well as extreme heat and noise.